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Bullying is defined as “a phenomenon of intentional aggression by one or more persons upon another or others in a way that is both repeated and maintained over time, and in which a power imbalance exists between the aggressor and the victim”. There are developmental variations in bullying behaviours: its prevalence seems to increase in late elementary school, peak in middle school, and decline in high school, although certain forms, such as cyberbullying may increase in high school. Research carried out in recent decades shows that bullying significantly affects the health of victims. Bullying is physical or verbal aggression that is repeated over a period and, in contrast to meanness, involves an imbalance of power. It oftentimes involves prolonged aggression over a period. bullying excludes the victim from a group. Social exclusion in itself is a punishment for humans who crave and strive through their positions in society.

We are essentially social beings and social exclusion can create a plethora of negative feelings. Being bullied can leave you feeling helpless, humiliated, depressed, or even suicidal.

Let’s discuss a few effects of bullying. Firstly, you’re made to feel hurt, angry, afraid, helpless, hopeless, isolated, ashamed, and even guilty that the bullying is somehow your fault. You may even feel suicidal. Secondly, it takes a toll on your physical health and out is at a greater risk of developing mental health problems such as depression, low self-esteem, anxiety, or adult onset PTSD.

It makes one more likely to avoid situations, even so, dropping out of school or work. Experiencing peer harassment is associated with lower grades, disliking school, and absenteeism. In addition, youth who were victimized as children or adolescents have increased rates of violence-related behaviours compared to those not involved in bullying.

Bullying is the result of the bully's need to get and keep control over someone else. The aggression that is involved in bullying interferes with the empathy needed to refrain from bullying others.

Being bullied makes young people incredibly insecure. When you're being bullied, you can feel constantly insecure and on guard. Even if you're not actively being bullied, you're aware it could start anytime. It has a big mental and emotional impact—you feel unaccepted, isolated, angry, and withdrawn. You're always wondering how you can do better and how you can escape a bully's notice. You're also stunted because of the constant tension and because maybe you forego making certain friendships or miss out on taking certain changes that could actually help your development.

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